- Zeiss EVO 40 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
- Ametek EDAX Apollo X Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyzer (EDX)
With the aid of SEM analysis small samples can be investigated with magnifications of up to 20.000x. Because the SEM is also equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis equipment, the composition of corrosion products or inclusions can be determined semi-quantitatively. For instance a differentiation can be made between particles of carbon steel, stainless steel, non ferrous alloys and non-metallic parts such as plastic or sand. Only elements heavier than carbon can be detected with this technique.
Examples of SEM / EDAX investigations:
- Semi quantitative analysis of inclusions or phases
- Analysis of particles found in e.g. oil or filters, by which means the origin of the particles can possibly be traced.
- Mapping of elements: how are certain elements distributed in the microstructure or near a porosity or inclusion
- Fracture surface analysis: with the aid of SEM analysis it can be determined what type of fracture has occurred: brittle fracture, ductile fracture or fatigue fracture. The accuracy of this determination is strongly dependent on the state of the fracture surface (fresh and clean or old and damaged or corroded).